An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It serves two main functions: identifying the host or network interface, and providing the location of the host in the network.
There are two types of IP addresses: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 addresses are written in dot-decimal notation (e.g. 192.168.1.1), and consist of 32 bits. IPv6 addresses, on the other hand, are written in hexadecimal notation (e.g. 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334), and consist of 128 bits.
An IP address is used to route data across the internet and to identify devices on a network. It is essential for communication between devices, enabling them to send and receive data.